Trading Human Rights How Preferential Trade Agreements Influence Government Repression

Ingram, P., Robinson, J., Busch, M. (2005). The Interstate Network of Global Trade: IGO Networks, Governance and Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 111, 824-858. Hafner-Burton, E. (2005b). Human Rights Shopping Forum: The Transformation of Preferential Trade Agreements. Scriptscript prepared for the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 1-4, 2005. Hafner-Burton, E., Tsutsui, K. (2005). Human rights in a globalized world: the paradox of empty promises. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 1373-1411. To deal with this mechanism, Hafner-Burton (617 in 2005) also takes into account a variable for inflows and outflows of foreign direct investment into countries.

For three reasons, we have decided to abandon this variable „FDI investments”. First, in theory, we are dealing with the same concerns as the trade to which we belong. Second, the Hafner-Burton variable (2005a) is statistically insignificant in all its model estimates, making it unlikely that this point will decisively influence our results. Finally, the World Bank`s development indicators, the source of the investment variable, suffer from the lack of values. T. Landman. Protection of human rights. A comparative study. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. One objection to our argument may be that some States are trying to incorporate strict human rights standards to urge their partner countries to respect human rights. This seems unbelievable, however, given that the inclusion of strict human rights standards in a EPZ, although it knows that the equivalent is unlikely to meet these standards, presents a serious challenge for a state. It may choose not to apply the standard, which causes it to incur reputational costs, or may decide to apply the standard, which will likely result in the loss of trade profits.

As happened at the time, actors should simply avoid this implementation dilemma by including strict human rights standards only in cases where their colleagues comply with these standards anyway. Cottier, T. (2002). Trade and human rights: a relationship to discover. Journal of International Economic Law, 5, 111-132. Poe, S.C., Tate, C. N. (1994). Crackdown on human rights on personal integrity in the 1980s: a comprehensive analysis.

American Political Science Review, 88, 853-900.